EPA is developing a final Significant New Use Rule (SNUR) under section 5(a)(2) of the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA), as well as a test rule under section 4 of TSCA, for certain polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs). Under a SNUR, persons who intend to engage in any significant new use would be required to notify EPA at least 90 days before commencing that new use. The required notification would enable EPA to evaluate the significant new use of these chemical substances and, if necessary, appropriately address risks to human health or the environment by limiting or prohibiting those uses before they occur. On April 2, 2012, EPA proposed to designate processing for any use as a significant new use of tetraBDE, pentaBDE, hexaBDE, heptaBDE, octaBDE, and nonaBDE. EPA also proposed that manufacturing, importing, or processing of these six PBDEs for any use as part of an article be designated as a significant new use. In addition, EPA proposed to designate manufacturing, importing and processing (including as part of an article), of a seventh PBDE, decabromodiphenyl ether (decaBDE) for any use, as a significant new use. Finally, EPA proposed to require that anyone who manufactures, imports, or processes c-pentaBDE, c-octaBDE, or c-decaBDE after December 31, 2013, conduct testing to obtain and subsequently submit to EPA specific data on health effects, environmental effects, and chemical fate. PBDEs are a family of chemicals with a common structure of a brominated diphenyl ether molecule which may have anywhere from four to 10 bromine atoms attached. PBDEs have been widely used as flame retardants in a number of applications: c-pentaBDE was used primarily as an additive flame retardant in flexible polyurethane foams; c-octaBDE was used in a crylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) plastic which was used as casing for certain electric and electronic devices used in both offices and homes. Domestic manufacture of c-pentaBDE and c-octaBDE ceased in 2004 when the Great Lakes Chemical Corporation (now Chemtura Corporation) voluntarily phased out their production. In December 2009, the two U.S. producers of decaBDE, Albemarle Corporation and Chemtura Corporation, and the largest U.S. importer, ICL Industrial Products, Inc., announced commitments to phase out manufacture and importation of decaBDE for most uses in the United States by December 31, 2012, and to end manufacture and import for all uses by the end of 2013.