This action addresses both EPA's obligation under Clean Air Act (CAA) to conduct a residual risk review and to conduct a technology review. Under the "technology review" provision of CAA section 112, EPA is required to review maximum achievable control technology (MACT) standards and to revise them "as necessary (taking into account developments in practices, processes and control technologies)" no less frequently than every 8 years. Under the "residual risk" provision of CAA section 112, EPA must evaluate the MACT standards within 8 years after promulgation and promulgate standards if required to provide an ample margin of safety to protect public health or prevent an adverse environmental effect. The MACT standards for Secondary Lead Smelters, which are also known as the National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) for Secondary Lead Smelters, were promulgated on June 23, 1995 under Clean Air Act section 112(d). The standards establish emission limitations and work practice standards for all new and existing secondary lead smelters that produce refined lead from lead scrap, mainly recycled spent lead acid batteries. The RTRs for secondary lead smelters will be conducted in this rulemaking. These reviews will address possible residual risks, technology advancements, and technical deficiencies in the existing NESHAP.